Bydgoszcz is a city located in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers. With a city population of 363,926 (March 2011), and an urban agglomeration with more than 470,000 inhabitants, Bydgoszcz is the 8th-largest city in Poland. It has been the seat of Bydgoszcz County and the co-capital, with Toruń, of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999. Prior to this, between 1947 and 1998, it was the capital of the Bydgoszcz Voivodeship, and before that, of the Pomeranian Voivodeship between 1945 and 1947.
Bydgoszcz is part of the metroplex Bydgoszcz-Toruń, which totals over 850,000 inhabitants. Bydgoszcz is the seat of Kazimierz Wielki University, University of Technology and Life Sciences and a conservatory, as well as a Collegium Medicum of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. Bydgoszcz hosts the Filharmonia Pomorska concert hall, the Opera Nova opera house, and the Bydgoszcz Ignacy Jan Paderewski Airport. Due to its location between the Vistula and Odra rivers, and the water course of the Bydgoszcz Canal, the city forms part of a water system connected via the Noteć, Warta, Odra, and Elbe with the Rhine and Rotterdam.
Bydgoszcz is the capital city of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voidship, Poland. It is located in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers, with a population of roughly 360 000, agglomeration more than 460 000, which makes it the 8th biggest city in Poland. Bydgoszcz is part of the metroplex Bydgoszcz-Toruń with Toruń, only 45 km away, and over 850,000 inhabitants. Bydgoszcz is the seat of Casimir the Great University, University of Technology and Life Sciences and a conservatory as well as a Collegium Medicum of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. Bydgoszcz has a famous Concert Hall (Filharmonia Pomorska), opera house Opera Nova and presents varied architecture which wasn’t badly damaged by the World War II.
City rights were granted to Bydgoszcz on April 19, 1346.
The city increasingly saw an influx of Jewish population after that date. In the 15th-16th centuries Bydgoszcz was a significant site for wheat trading.
In 1772 it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in the First Partition of Poland and incorporated into the Netze District as Bromberg and, later, West Prussia.
During this time, a canal was built from Bromberg to Nakło.
In 1807, after the defeat of Prussia by Napoleon, and the signing of the Treaty of Tilsit, Bromberg became part of the Duchy of Warsaw. In 1815 it returned to Prussian rule as part of the autonomous Grand Duchy of Poznań (the Province of Posen after 1848) and the capital of the Bromberg region.
After 1871 the city was part of the German Empire. After World War I and the Great Poland Uprising, Bromberg was assigned to Poland in 1919. In 1938 it was made part of the Pomeranian Voivodeship.
From 1939-45 during World War II, Bydgoszcz was retaken by Nazi Germany, in the Invasion of Poland and annexed to the Reichsgau Wartheland. On September 3, 1939, shortly after the war started, the Bromberg Bloody Sunday incident occurred in which numerous Germans and Poles were killed; the incident was used in Nazi propaganda and reprisals against the Poles followed after Bromberg was occupied by the Wehrmacht on September 9. The city’s Jewish citizens were repressed and thousands of people were sent to concentration camps and/or executed.
In 1945 Bromberg was overrun by the Soviet army. After the Yalta Agreement, it was assigned to Poland, which later became a soviet satellite in the Warsaw Pact.